Pathophysiology of hypercapnic and hypoxic respiratory failure

Posted by e-Medical PPT Thursday, May 14, 2015
Respiratory Failure inadequate blood oxygenation or CO2 removal A syndrome rather than a disease
Hypoxemic PaO2 < 60 mmHg Hypercapnic PaCO2 > 45 mmHg

Hypercapnic respiratory failure
Decreased minute ventilation †
CNS disorders „
Stroke, brain tumor, spinal cord lesions, drug overdose †
Peripheral nerve disease
„ Guillain-Barresyndrome, botulism,
myasthenia gravis †
Muscle disorders
„Muscular dystrophy, respiratory muscles fatigue
Chest wall abnormalities „
Scoliosis, kyphosis, obesity †
Metabolic abnormalities „
Myxedema, hypokalemia †
Airway obstruction „Upper airway obstruction, Asthma, COPD

Ventilatory demand depends on
O2 demand
dead space and minute ventilation

Ventilatory supply depends on
Respiratory drive
Muscle /neuron function
Respiratory mechanics

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